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中國牡蠣的比較解剖學及系統分類和演化的研究

STUDIES ON THE COMPARATIVE ANATOMY, SYSTEMATIC CLASSIFICATION AND EVOLUTION OF CHINESE OYSTERS

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【作者】 李孝緒齊鐘彥

【Author】 Li Xiaoxu and Qi Zhongyan (Institute of Oceanologu. Academia Sinica)

【機構】 中國科學院海洋研究所中國科學院海洋研究所

【摘要】 <正> 牡蠣是世界性廣布類群,也是世界各國都極為重視的海水養殖對象,具有很重要的經濟意義。但牡蠣的種類等許多與養殖、資源開發密切相關的問題在國內外都未能得到很好的解決,限制了一些相關學科的發展。在我國,由于牡蠣種類比較混亂,甚至盲目引進了我國已有分布并開展養殖的種類,因此,盡快解決雙殼類分類的難題之一——牡蠣的分類及系統演化等問題勢在必行。

【Abstract】 This paper details the comparative anatomical studies on Chinese oysters According to the presence or absence of promyal chambers and the connections between the body and the gills, Chinese oysters can be divided into three types and subdivided into six groups.Type 1, with left and right promyal chambers, including one group; Type 2, with right promyal chamber only, including four groups; and Type 3, without promyal chamber, including one group.The evolution trends in the digestive, nervous, circulatory, and other systems, are discussed on the basis of anatomy, and the evolution through the living oysters is suggested. Many new soft part characters are found, and some are first used in oyster classifications. The world-wide confusions in species of Hyotissa, Parahyotissa, Saccostrea and Crassostrea are clarified to some extent. The old problems in identifying Chinese oysters are solved this time. One new monotypic genus Talonostrea and its species T. talonata, which are very important in the evolution lines, and a newly recorded species Alectryonella- plicatula is described. The 20 previously species are now re-identified as 15 species (Hyotissa hyotis, Parahyotissa imbricata, P. sinensis, Lopha cristagalli, Dendostrea folium, D. crenulifera, Alectryonella plicatula, Tatonostrea talonata, Crassostrea gigas, C. rivulatis, Crassostrea sp., Saccostrea cucullata, S. echinata, Planost-rea pestigris, and Ostrea denselamellosa), belonging in two families, Grypheidae. and Ostreidae, and four subfamilies, Pycnodonteinae, Lopheinae, Crassostreinae and Ostreinae.

【基金】 國家自然科學基金;中科院區系分類基金
  • 【文獻出處】 海洋科學集刊 ,Studia Marina Sinica , 編輯部郵箱 ,1994年00期
  • 【分類號】Q954
  • 【下載頻次】455
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