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論移民社會的宗教徒身份——以美國華裔佛教徒為例

On the Identity of Religious Believers in the Immigration Society:A Case Study on Chinese-American Buddhists

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【作者】 李四龍

【Author】 Li Silong(Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies,Peking University,Beijing 100871,China)

【機構】 北京大學哲學系宗教學系

【摘要】 美國佛教具有移民性和族群性的雙重特點,亞裔佛教徒約占全美佛教徒的70%—80%,非亞裔佛教徒,主要包括歐裔、非裔和拉美裔佛教徒。佛教徒的身份,有助于彼此超越族群之間的界限。美國的華裔佛教徒,其佛教身份能淡化華人在美國的族群意識,拉近與美國主流社會的距離,同時強化了與中國文化的傳統聯系,并能借此形成復雜的社會關系網絡。也就是說,在美國這樣的移民社會里,宗教徒身份并沒有加劇族群或宗教之間的矛盾與沖突。若能彰顯宗教的文化內涵,淡化族群的政治色彩,在人口流動日趨頻繁的全球化時代,宗教徒身份有利于構建多元一體的文化體系和社會結構。當然,宗教信仰代表某種價值觀或道德倫理,外來宗教徒首先需要尊重當地的社會風俗或主流價值,否則難有立足之地。

【Abstract】 American Buddhism has two outstanding characteristics,including the nature of immigration and ethnicity.Asian-American Buddhists occupy 70-80% of the whole Buddhists in America.Non-Asian-American Buddhists mainly include those Buddhist followers who or whose ancestors were from Europe,Africa or Latin America.In fact,the identity of Buddhist followers can effectively help them go beyond the boundary between ethnic groups.For example,the identity of Chinese-American Buddhists has helped them weaken their self-consciousness as Chinese in America,and shorten their distance from American mainstream society.Meanwhile,this identity has also helped them strengthen their traditional association with Chinese culture,thus gradually forming a complex network of social relationship.That is to say,the identity of religious believers won’t aggravate the contradiction and confrontation between various ethnic or religious groups in such an immigration society as America.Then,if the cultural connotation of a religion is emphasized,and the political coloration of an ethnic group is weakened,the identity of religious believers will be beneficial for the construction of a pluralistic and integral cultural system and social structure in the era of globalization with ever-increasing population mobility.Of course,as a religious belief represents certain values,morality and ethics,the believers of a religion from outside must first of all respect the local social customs and the mainstream values.Otherwise,the foreign religion can hardly establish itself locally.

  • 【文獻出處】 北京大學學報(哲學社會科學版) ,Journal of Peking University(Philosophy & Social Sciences) , 編輯部郵箱 ,2013年04期
  • 【分類號】B911
  • 【下載頻次】537
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