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高尚謊言——尼采悲劇理論述評

Noble Lies:Nietzsche’s Theory of Tragedy

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【作者】 丁爾蘇

【Author】 Ding Ersu;Lingnan University;

【機構】 香港嶺南大學

【摘要】 弗里德里希·尼采是西方美學史上一位承前啟后、繼往開來的重要人物。他的理論貢獻主要在于超越簡單的模仿說和寫實論,指出藝術作品的虛構性和實用性。其虛構性主要源于日神精神所表現出的夢幻特征,其實用性則源于人最根本的生存意志。也就是說,藝術除了幫助我們認知世界,還能夠增強人的生存欲望,所以不應該被從理想國驅逐出去。與此同時,尼采還強調悲劇這一特殊藝術門類在人類文明發展史上的重要性。倘若我們過于依賴日神的麻醉劑,文學和藝術就會逐漸喪失其嚴肅性,成為專門取悅大眾的流行作品。這時就需要直面人生的酒神來干預,增強我們對人間苦難的敏感度。與其前輩叔本華的意志論相比,尼采的日神與酒神之辯證統一學說更加積極,它不提倡放棄生活,而是鼓勵個人在人類整體生活中尋求形而上的生存意義。令人遺憾的是,尼采對具體悲劇作品的解讀常常失之偏頗,他關于古希臘悲劇死于歐里庇得斯手中的論斷也因而令人質疑。盡管如此,尼采將悲劇藝術之消長與人類文明之變遷相連接的開創性努力功不可沒,有助于我們克服長期統治著理論界的藝術本體論。

【Abstract】 Friedrich Nietzsche is a very important figure in the history of Western aesthetics.His major contribution to the theory of art lies in his transcendence of the simplistic theory of imitation and realism,pointing out the fictional as well as pragmatic nature of art.The fictional aspect of art originates from illusion which is often associated with Apollo whereas the pragmatic aspect of art derives from humans’ fundamental will to live.This means that art can not only help us know the world better but also enhance our will to life,thus ensuring its legitimate place in Plato’s republic.At the same time,Nietzsche emphasizes the special importance of tragedy as unique genre of art in the development of human civilization.If we rely too much on the prophylactic function of Apollonian spirit,art will gradually lose its seriousness and turn into popular texts whose main objective is to entertain,hence a need for Dionysian spirit which can restore our natural sensitivity to suffering as the true essence of human existence.In comparison with his predecessor Arthur Schopenhauer’s philosophy of the will,Nietzsche’s theory of the unity of the Apollonian and the Dionysian is much more positive,encouraging individuals to seek her meaning of life in relation to the entirety of humankind at a metaphysical level.What weakens Nietzsche’s theory of art is his misreading of many tragic texts which in turn put into question his judgment that Greek tragedy died in the hands of Euripides.Nevertheless,Nietzsche’s pioneering effort in connecting the rise and fall of tragedy with specific developments in human history is very inspiring to our constant struggle to overcome the unhealthy dominance of the theory of autonomy of art.

  • 【文獻出處】 馬克思主義美學研究 ,Research on Marxist Aesthetics , 編輯部郵箱 ,2020年02期
  • 【分類號】I01
  • 【下載頻次】209
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