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從印度佛教傳入中國看兩種文化的沖突和融合

Inter-Cultural Conflict and Harmony Seen in Light of the Introduction of India’s Buddhism into China

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【作者】 湯一介

【Author】 Tang Yijie Institute of Chinese Culture

【機構】 深圳大學國學研究所

【摘要】 中國歷史上有三次大規模的外來文化的傳入:第一次是公元一世紀到九世紀印度佛教的傳入,第二次是明中葉到清初西方自然科學的傳入,第三次是鴉片戰爭以后西方文化的全面傳播,特別是五四運動時期馬克思主義的傳入。外來文化的沖擊必然引起,傳統文化結構的震蕩和改變,這兩者之間有一個相互矛盾、沖突、融合、吸收的長期而復雜的過程。本文考察了印度佛教傳入中國后“比附”、“沖突”、“融合”的三個階段,探討了中國文化開放型的特點。“前事不忘,后世之師”,從這一歷史過程中我們也許能吸收一些對中國現代化進程有教益的東西。

【Abstract】 The history of China has recorded three major foreign cultural inflows, among which the introduction of India’s Buddhism into China (1—9 cent. A. D.)is the first. The second inflow is that of the Western natural sciences dating from mid-Ming Dynasty to early Qing Dynasty. And the latest one is the allround inflow of Western culture following the Opium War, culminating in the introduction of Marxism-Leninism into China during the May Fourth Move ment.The foreign culture pounded at China’s traditional cultural structure and caused inevitable Shockwaves and changes. The two cultures have undergone a long and complicated process of mutually contradicting, conflicting, harmonizing, and inter-assimilation. This paper is an investigation into the three phases experienced by India’s Buddhism in China, that is, "imitating","conflicting", and "harmonizing". And in this light the paper expounds the "open" nature of China’s culture. Recalling the past can enlighten the future. The above-discussed history might render some enlightenment for China’s on-going cause of modernization.

  • 【文獻出處】 深圳大學學報(社會科學版) ,Shenzhen University Journal , 編輯部郵箱 ,1985年03期
  • 【下載頻次】1604
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